Thursday, November 28, 2019

What is Macro Environment Essay Example

What is Macro Environment? Paper The macro-environment consists of larger societal forces that affect entire micro-environment. The six forces making up the companys macro- environment include demographic, economic, natural, technological, political/ legal, and social-cultural forces. Companies must constantly watch and adapt to the marketing environment in order to seek opportunities and ward off threats. The marketing environment comprises all the actors and forces influencing the companys ability to transact business effectively with its target market (Armstrong and Kettle 2003, p. 149). In this report, use PEST to analyze macro-environment forces how to impact on PepsiCo in China. As we know, the PepsiCo was the first U. S. Company to distribute its products in China after China implement reform and opening up policy in 1979. Through many years business operation in China, the company fully understands their development worldwide must adapt Chinas macro-environmental various forces and must put into practice their localization strategy Think local, Act local. In this report, by serious study and literature review, with refer to relevant books, journals, search information from internet. According to Kettle and Keller (2005), in the demographic environment, arresters must be aware of worldwide population growth, changing mixes of age, ethnic composition, educational levels and the move to micromanaging and away from mass marketing. In the economic arena, marketers need to focus on income distribution and levels of savings, debt, and credit availability. In the social-cultural arena, marketers must understand peoples views of themselves, organizations, society, nature and the universe. We will write a custom essay sample on What is Macro Environment? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on What is Macro Environment? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on What is Macro Environment? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer They must market products that correspond to societys core and secondary values, and address the needs of different subcultures within a society. In the tartar environment, marketers need to be aware of raw materials shortages, increased energy costs and pollution levels, and the changing role of governments in environmental protection. In the technological arena, marketers should take account of the accelerating pace of technological change for innovation, varying RD budgets, and the increased governmental regulation brought about by technological change. Finally, in the political-legal environment, marketers must work within the many laws regulating business practices and with various special-interest groups. In this report, use PEST to analyze macro-environment forces how to impact n PepsiCo in China will be presented. Through many years business operation in China, the company understands their development worldwide must adapt Chinese macro-environmental various forces and must put into practice their localization strategy Think local, Act local. COMPANY PROFILE PepsiCo was founded in 1965 through the merger of Pepsi-Cola and Frito- Lay. Tropical was acquired in 1998 and PepsiCo merged with The Quaker Oats Company, including Storage, in 2001. PepsiCo is a world leader in convenient foods and beverages, with 2006 revenues of more than $35 billion ND 1 68,000 employees. PepsiCo presence in China dates back to the earlier days of the nations reforms. In 1981, Pepsi-Cola became one of the first American investors in China by signing an agreement with the Chinese government to build a bottling plant in Sheehan. To date, PepsiCo has established more than 40 joint or wholly owned ventures in China with a total investment over IIS$I billion, directly employing 10,000 staff (Official website of PepsiCo). MACRO-ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ON MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF PEPSICO In analyzing the macro-environment, it is important to identify the factors that eight in turn affect a number of vital variables that are likely to influence the organizations supply and demand levels and its costs. A PEST analysis is one of them that is merely a framework that categorizes environmental influences as political/legal, economic, social/cultural and technological forces. Such external factors usually are beyond the firms control and sometimes present themselves as threats. Use PEST tool to analysis macro-environment influence on PepsiCo in China is necessary. ;The political-legal environment Before you play the game, learn the rules. Some businesspeople exhibit a memorable lack of knowledge about markets nags political-legal environment. Ignorance of or noncompliance with laws, ordinances, and regulations can lead to fines, embarrassing negative publicity, and possibly expensive civil damage suits. As a foreign company, PepsiCo intend to invest in Chinas beverage industry which is tightly controlled and subject to government approval. According to Chinese governments regulation, a new bottling plant cue reentry requires about three-year wait for government approval, and concentrate production volume must be re-authorized annually. In addition, PepsiCo has a global strategy of TV advertising, PepsiCo has included everything from Chinese zodiac animals to Spring Festival couplets in its television commercials. This approach, combined with relatively long advertising history in the country has made Pepsi Cola the most recognized soft-drink brand in China. However, governments policy and regulation can also impact on the companys market strategy. Being a communist country, in China, although people now are very much free of expression in ordinary life, there is still no free media. The media is still very controlled by the overspent and there is always the risk of having more regulations especially to foreigners. The economic environment The health of the economy influences how much consumers spend and what they buy. Consumer buying plays an important role in the economys health- indeed, consumer outlays make up some two-thirds of overall economic activity. According to Boone and Kurt (n. D. ), economic environment consists of those factors that influence consumer buying power and marketing strategies. They include the stage of business cycle, inflation, unemployment, resource availability, and income. As we know, Chinas economy grew at an average rate of 10% per year during the period 1990-2006, the highest growth rate in the world. However, Chinese inflation ran at 5. % for the second consecutive month in August in 2006, according to official figures. PepsiCo has already met great challenge because inflation is a general rise in price resulting in decreased purchasing power. Inflation will increase the companys costs like expense to purchase materials for production, and may lead to declining sales. Marketers of PepsiCo understood clearly that inflation will cause consumers to react in two ways: 1). Decrease their brand loyalty. In a recent research, most Chinese consumers are willing to use cheaper brand, and honesty, because it works just as well. ). Stickup. Many consumers take advantage of coupons and sales to stock up (Hair et al. 1992, p. 52). In addition, income is another important factor in marketings economic environment because it influences consumer buying power. The price of the product has to be affordable however there should be a premium that consumers are willing to pay for the health benefit as well as for the modern and higher status image it will offer. The risk here is to fail in selling the alee of the product and to set the premium to be higher than consumers are willing to pay. The social-cultural environment Component of the marketing environment consisting of the relationship between the marketer, society, and its culture. Doing business in China successfully requires an understanding of China as a nation and of the culture of the Chinese people. A societys culture determines how it members communicate and interact with each other (Griffin Pastas 2003, p. 85). A nations culture can impact on foreign countrys products and service. In China, many people are very interested in soft drinks. A result of this has been growing rates of obesity both Chinese adults and children. Due to Chinese culture, it is necessary that what they drink offers some benefits to their health. Nowadays, more and more Chinese people have already pay attention to obesity problem. If soft drinks can not consider healthy, although increasing their market share, this is the risk the PepsiCo have to face. In addition, an understanding of the cultural practices in both the business and social environments is essential for being successful when doing business with Chinese companies (Patchworks LLC. 003). Initially when PepsiCo entered into Chinese market, the company has already lost some business opportunities in China because they expected the Chinese people do it my way. The Chinese culture is long established and does not adapt quickly. For example, doing any business in China will require negotiation of contracts, prices, and terms, etc. The negotiation process in China, compared to Western standards, will be very slow and deliberate. One difficulty in negotiation with Chinese companies is knowing what means no. Culturally, saying no directly is seen as rude and unacceptable. Many times when the company hears we will consider it, it really means no. ;The technological environment The technological environment represents the application to marketing of knowledge based on discoveries in science, inventions, and innovations. Major developments in technology can have enormous marketing implications because they can drastically alter industries. Despite the technological promise of this new product, the development stage of such innovations is lengthy and complex. Company must often gamble on technology to attain success, and many companies have gambled and lost. PepsiCo had spent millions of dollars working on growing salad vegetables market to fast food chain in China. Technically the venture was sound-the infrastructure was set and the product was of high quality. The company had even arranged a machine to process and packages the fresh vegetables to give them a shelf life of two weeks, therefore opening up the Chinese market. However, the quality of the companys marketing did not match that of the technological planning stages. The fast food chain chosen not to buy the stock and the company had nowhere to off-land its vast quantity of ripe vegetables- it had lost its markets. MACRO-ENVIRONMENT FORCES ON PEPSICO MARKETING ACTIVITIES As mentioned above, in business arena, one of the difficulties facing marketing managers is that environmental forces are generally beyond their control. Marketing organizations must try to adapt changing environmental conditions. Not only can environmental opportunity become threat; environmental threat can also become opportunity (1989, p. 55). Marketers must overcome various macro-environmental clash and barriers between Chinese macro-environment and international business. Laws and regulations affect all aspect Of marketing operation and decision aging-designing, labeling, distributing, advertising, and promoting goods and services. The management of PepsiCo realized that major regulation has already impact on their marketing activities. To cope with the vast, complex, and changing nature of the political-legal environment, many larger companies maintain in-house legal department like PepsiCo. In addition, as a foreign company, marketers must comply with Chinas laws and regulations, however, noncompliance can scar a companys reputation and hurt profits. Marketers should take steps to control forces in political-legal environment. PepsiCo has invested heavily into adapting its operations and business strategies to the local culture and practice. It currently has 24 bottling joint- ventures indirectly through two Hong Kong-based companies that it partly owns and maintains a strong market presence through partnerships with the Chinese government and domestic companies. PepsiCo has established its Asia-Pacific headquarters in Shanghai running its operations for many countries. Companies must scan, monitor, forecast, and assess the health of economies outside their host nation because nations are interconnected as a result of he global economy. Inflation rate is currently reaching to 5% in China, inflation pressures consumers to make more economical purchases. PepsiCo should realize that despite what happens to the sells cost, the buyer is not going to pay more for a product than the value he or she places on it. When the economy is characterized by high inflation, a series of special pricing tactics are often necessary. Marketing managers should develop an effective cost-forecasting system and use anticipatory pricing. According to Hair et al. (1992), these tactics can be subdivided into cost-oriented and demand-oriented. Cost-orientated tactics consist of delayed-quotation pricing and escalator pricing. Delay-quotation pricing is a very popular pricing tactic that price is not set on the product until item is either finished or delivered. Demand- orientated pricing methods include price shady and increasing demand through increasing selected demand, unique offering, and system selling. As we know, the Chinese people are still to well-off life and their income are not very high. The pricing strategy is a very important part of the marketing mix, because it can affect both supply and demand for a company such as PepsiCo. Therefore the companys pricing strategy must adapt economic environment. One of the most important price factors of PepsiCo is customers affordability. If the price is too high, Consumers will spend their money on other goods. As a multinational company, it always must appeal to Chinese consumers, especially in the era of globalization. The company have had adapt to the local economic environment in order to success. Most Chinese can afford an occasional soft drink a can of Coke cost RMI . 90($0. 24) in Shanghai today. Due to rationality of Cokes price, their products currently reach about 60% of Chinas population. The social-cultural environment is made up of institutions and other forces that affect a societys basic value, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors. Product decisions are also affected by cultural variables. As mentioned onwards, increasingly Chinese people have already focused on obesity problem. If soft drinks can not consider healthy, this is the risk the PepsiCo have to face. So, PepsiCo decided to carry out a feasible solution that reduce calorie intake from soft drinks. At the same time, PepsiCo decision-making for product and service should also consider local customers purchase habits. It will also reflect a nations culture. For instant, the Chinese like hot, incorporated soft drinks with nature ingredients or herbs that they believe are good to human health, in particular, they like hot teas. Tea is so popular in China that people call it Tea Culture. PepsiCo realized Chinese peoples drinking habits, then they introduced Lipton Tea quickly, a line of incorporated drinks through cooperate with local partner. PepsiCo long-term strategies of localizing production promote their market share. In order to avoid lost opportune ties and bring about misunderstandings, consciousness have to realize anothers cultural background. Understanding manners and customs is especially important in negotiations. If the company expected the Chinese people do it my way, they will lose more chances. China has a unique culture that dates back to thousands of year, combined with the factor of about 60 years ruling of communist one-party totalitarianism. Foreign business people and companies should try to adapt quickly. Consequently, you need learn do it their way. Technological trends are critically important in identifying marketing opportunities. These trends include new directions in research and velveteen (R) that might lead to new products or even to new industries (Easel 1990, p. 72). For the experience of failure in new product development the company remains undaunted, they plan to return to the fast food market with salad vegetables. This time, the company promises it will not forget the importance of inventory. PepsiCo fully understand that in the low-margin soft-drink business, one of the key com appetite advantages lies on the efficiencies in every aspect of business process, from procurement of raw and semi-finished material to inventory management, from production landing to material requirements planning, from distribution to service, etc. As the leader in this industry, PepsiCo knows how critical role information technology plays in its success. In fact, it has a long history of employing advanced information technology to support its direct-store-delivery business model and management. In China, PepsiCo China use Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implemented by FIAT. Moreover, PepsiCo ultimate weapon in maintaining its market leadership is Research and Development. Since product formulations are kept as trade secrets most of the patents are related to technology that supports beverage industry. PepsiCo will use its patents to increase its market share in each and every market it serves R D delivers true value to coke consumers worldwide. The key areas of technologies where most of the patents filed are Packaging, Vending Equipment, Fountain Equipment, Water Treatment and alternative refrigeration technologies. In China technologies related to water treatment and vending equipment will come handy in gaining market share. The company will also be forced to develop new technologies for Chinas country specific use. Several new technologies will be used in designing and packing ewe products. Research and Development will also try to add local herbal products to add more energy to the drink and give a local flavor to the product. Research and Development will use a small-scale bottling system to test bottling runs of new product. It will make sure that the new drink can be produced and bottled in a massive scale. PepsiCo will also take its testing of new product on road and test it in various regions of China to make sure that it will be acceptable in all regions of China. CONCLUSION Most films face external environment that are highly turbulent, complex, and lobar-conditions that make interpreting them increasingly difficult (Ireland and Hit 1999, p. 43). In todays complex and rapidly changing environment, marketing managers need use PEST analysis to make effective and timely decisions. Understanding one nations macro-environment diversity that could positively impact your business relationship is the key to success in this country. The PepsiCo is a good example in this report. The PepsiCo entirely understands Chinas various external environments, consumers behaviors and practices that localization is their long-term market strategy. As Porter (1985) stated the importance of analysis the macro-environment: every industry has an underlying structure or set of fundamental economic and technical characteristics.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

ACT Advice Top 5 Tips on Preparing for the Test

ACT Advice Top 5 Tips on Preparing for the Test SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you’re looking for a concise, effective list of the bestACT advice, you’ve found it. Sometimes too much information can do more harm than good - in this post, I’ll lay out the five most importantthings you should do in order to do well on the ACT. Let's get to it! Tip #1:Figure Out Your Pain Points If you're gearing up to study for (and take) the ACT, you'll want to focus onimproving your weakest skills. So what are the biggest, most common problem areas that students have when preparing for the exam? 1. Content The ACT isn't a one-subject test - in order to do well, you'll have to prepare for the English, Math, Reading, and Science sections (not to mention the optional Writing section). If you're weak in a particular subject area in school, for example, you may see a weaker performance in the corresponding ACT section. 2. Timing The ACT isdivided into strictly timed sections, meaning you have less time to both complete questions and check your work. You may know everything you need to know, but still have issues with completing sections within the allottedtime limit. 3. Strategy Many standardized tests (the ACT included) list confusing or even misleading questions and/or answer choices. You may lose points (even if you know the relevant material) on tricky questions like this. To do well on the ACT, you'll, of course, need to think aboutall three major problem areas. You'll want to spend time thinking critically, though, about which of these areas are your major "pain points" - areas that are leading to the greatest loss of points. The best way to do this is to workthrough official ACT practicematerial. Once you've gone through a few practice sections (or, ideally, a whole ACT practice test) under realistic timing conditions, you can get a better idea of where you should focus your efforts. Get started by checking out our guide to reflecting on your ACT practice tests. Tip #2:Make a Study Plan Once you figure out what you need to practice most, your next step should be to lay out a time-sensitive and weakness-sensitive study plan. What I mean by this is you should set a study schedule based on 1) the amount of time you have to prepare for the ACT, and 2) your test content and strategy weaknesses. The amount of time you need to study depends on how much you want to improve from your baseline score. Here are some general guidelines for the amount of time you should prep depending on thesegoals: 0-1 Composite Score Improvement: 10 hours 1-2 Composite Score Improvement: 20 hours 2-4 Composite Score Improvement: 40 hours 4-6 Composite Score Improvement: 80 hours 6-9 Composite Score Improvement: 150+ hours Some students canfollow through on a plan with just independent study, whereas other students fare better with help from a tutoror an ACT prep course. If you’d like some more information on coming up with a study plan, check out our posts on how long you should study for the ACT and putting together a sample study schedule. Tip #3: Learn From Your Mistakes The most important part of studying effectively is critically analyzing how, why, and when you mess up. It’s also perhaps the least fun part of prepping for the ACT. Just keep in mind that if you’re not thinking about the problems, concepts, and strategies that you’re weak in, you’re missing out on valuable opportunities to improve your score. Mistakes and errors are only "bad" if you don't use them to improve. The big categories of errors and mistakes include: Careless errors - you should have known the right answer Content issues - you didn't have the information needed to answer the question Comprehension issues - you couldn't figure out what the question was asking Errors due to timing - these usually happen at the end of a section There are some simple, but important steps you should follow if you want to learn from your mistakes on ACT practice tests. Lucky for you, we have an awesome comprehensive guide on these strategies. You can also check out more detailed information on reflecting on ACT practice tests, ACT English, and ACT strategy mistakes. Tip #4: Work Efficiently You have to work efficiently if you want to do well on the ACT - this tip applies both when you’re studying for the test and when you’re actually taking the test. The bottom line is that if you’re not using your time wisely, you’re wasting time. To work efficiently as you study, it’s important that you do a few things: Stick to your study plan (Tip #2). It helps to set reasonable study goals, so you don't get distracted or side-tracked. Use the right study materials - don’t prepare with practice materials that won’t serve you well on the actual test. Focus on your pain points(Tip #1)first! To work effectively as you take the test,know that you'll be most effective if you've practiced developing time management skills through your prep. If you still need help with timing, though, you should read more about: How to stop running out of time on ACT reading How to stop running out of time on ACT math Time management for ACT science General ACT time management Tip #5:Take Care of Yourself Physically Mentally All of the previous ACT advicewon’t serve you well at all on test day if you’re stressed, hungry, or tired. No matter how much you may want to cram for the ACT the entire night before, keep in mind that your health and wellness is super important when it comes to your test performance. The ACT is a marathon, not a sprint, so prepare yourself the night before for a mental workout. This means getting a good night’s rest and a healthy breakfast (your brain needs fuel, you know)! There are even more things you can do to take care of yourself the night before and the morning of the ACT - following those strategies will help you optimize your score. Wrapping Up In short, here are the five most important things you should do to prepare for the ACT: Figure out your pain points Make a study plan Learn from your mistakes Work efficiently Take care of yourself physically mentally There's a lot more detail to get into when it comes to prepping for the test, but if you follow this ACT advice, you'll be on the right track. What's Next? Next comes the work of actually studying for the ACT! As it's best to focus first on your weaknesses, you may want to read up on the three core areas of ACT prep: content, timing, and strategy.Check out our guides to ACT reading, math, science, and writing. Read more about how to beat the clock when you're taking the test. Finally, read up on 12 last-minute strategies that will boost your score. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Debate] about should voters approve some particular measure that Essay

Debate] about should voters approve some particular measure that allows some state or county to regulate legalized prostitution - Essay Example The first group is represented by proponents of the so-called proposition K (a measure to decriminalize prostitution) who also agree on the necessity of legalization and subsequent regulation. The members of this group suggest a variety of measures that would help regulate prostitution as a legalized business in the United States. The second group is represented by the opponents to the Proposition K and to legalization of prostitution in the United States. For this group, the question of the prostitution regulation by law does not exist as they oppose the very idea of its decriminalization and legalization of â€Å"the world’s oldest profession† (Armentano, â€Å"The Case for Legalized Prostitution†). This paper explores the arguments of both groups using the Toulmin model and provides a justified perspective on the issue. Firstly, the rhetorical situation is considered as the phenomenon of prostitution is discussed in the context of modern American society and i ts status. Next, the arguments of each side are analyzed with the help of the Toulmin model, which will help to reveal the common backing. Further, the author’s perspective on the issue will be discussed. ... In addition, it is alleged that the illegal status of prostitution has prevented women from working in safe conditions and urged them to work in the streets. Also, illegal prostitution, which is deemed a misdemeanor, incurs millions of tax dollars to be spent on investigation and prosecution of this criminal offense. To illustrate, statistic data show that Los Angeles spends around 100 million dollars a year to deal with prostitution (Armentano, â€Å"The Case for Legalized Prostitution†). Besides, it was estimated that nearly a half of illegal prostitutes in New York City and Washington D.C. were HIV-positive back in the 1990s (Armentano, â€Å"The Case for Legalized Prostitution†). Proponents of prostitution legalization and regulation warrant that legalization and regulation of prostitution is beneficial in many ways. They back their statement by saying that legalized brothels, with strict regulation by the state, in combination with severe penalties for the so-calle d johns that seek sex in the streets, will prevent human trafficking, spread of infections, and victimization of prostitutes (Lee & Persson 1). While it can be said that prostitution is a morally challenging occupation that promotes the decay of norms and values in the society and does not deserve decriminalization and legalization, it remains a fact that to use the services of sex workers or not is a personal choice of each of us. In addition, some people oppose the idea that legalized and regulated prostitution will help reduce victimization of prostitutes pointing out that the black market will still exist and keep recruiting girls from poor nations, the fraction of involuntary prostitutes as